Lighting principle: indoor LED lighting light source, LED by Ⅲ - Ⅳ compounds, such as GaAs (gallium arsenide), GaP (gallium phosphide), GaAsP phosphorus (GaAs) made of semiconductor, such as its core is the p-n junction. Therefore, it has the i-v feature of general p-n junction, which is the positive guide, reverse cut-off and breakdown characteristics. In addition, under certain conditions, it also has the luminescence characteristic. In the forward voltage, the electron is injected into the P area by N region, and the hole is injected into N region by P zone. A small number of carriers entering the opposite area (children) are composed of a majority of carriers (multiple children).
If the luminescence occurs in the P area, then the injected electrons and the valence are directly combined with the cavitation, or they are captured by the luminescent center and then combined with the cavitation. In addition, this kind of light composite some electrons are not luminous center (the center between the conduction band, interface with near middle) capture, then with hole compound, every time the energy released is not big, could not form visible light. The higher the ratio of the luminescent compound to the non-luminous composite, the higher the quantum efficiency. Since the composite is luminescent in the children's diffusion zone, the light is generated only within mu m near the PN junction.
The theory and practice show that the peak wavelength of light is associated with the semiconductor material in the luminescent region, namely, lambda is approximately 1240/Eg (mm). The unit of Eg is electron volts (eV). If visible light can be produced (wavelength 380nm ~ 780nm red light), Eg of semiconductor materials should be between 3.26 ~ 1.63 eV. Infrared light is longer than the wavelength of red light. There are infrared, red, yellow, green and blue light emitting diodes, but the cost and price of the blu-ray diodes are high and the use is not universal.
(1) save energy: the spectrum of LED is almost entirely concentrated in visible light band, and its luminous efficiency can reach 80-90%. The author will also LED lights with ordinary incandescent lamp, spiral energy-saving lamps T5 trichromatic fluorescent lamps and done some comparison, the result shows: the ordinary incandescent light efficiency of 12 lm/w, life is less than 2000 hours, spiral energy-saving lamp luminous efficacy of 60 lm/w, life is less than 8000 hours, T5 fluorescent lamp is 96 alm/w, life is about 10000 hours, and a diameter of 5 mm white LED to 20-28 lm/w, life can be greater than 100000 hours. It is also predicted that future LED lifetime limits will be infinite.
The average person thinks that energy-saving lamp can save energy 4/5 is great creation, but LED is more energy than energy-saving lamp 1/4, this is the solid light source bigger reform. In addition, LED has other advantages, the light quality is high, basically has no radiation, belongs to the typical green lighting source; Reliable and durable, maintenance costs are extremely low and so on. Because the LED has the characteristics of the above other solid source, the LED will be the mainstream light source in the lighting industry in 10 years.
(2) safe and environmental protection: the working electricity of the LED is lowered to 1.4-3v; The average LED working current is only 10mA, and the ultra-high brightness is only a 1A. Leds don't add "mercury" in the process of production, also do not need air, do not need glass shell, good impact resistance, good shock resistance, invulnerability to breakage and facilitate transportation, very green, known as "green energy".
(3) long service life: the LED is small and lightweight, and the shell is encapsulated with epoxy resin, which can not only protect the internal chip, but also have the ability to light up the light. LED life is generally between 50,000 and 100,000 hours, because leds are semiconductor devices, and even frequent switches do not affect service life. Nowadays, household lighting mainly USES incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and energy-saving fluorescent lamps.
(4) fast response: LED the response frequency f tau and minority carrier injection of tau MC about life, such as GaAs material made of LED, the tau MC generally range between 1-10 ns, the frequency response of about 16-160 MHz, such a high response frequency for video signal display 6.5 MHz is enough, this is one of the key factors to realize video LED large screen.
The lowest LED response time is 1 microsecond, usually a few milliseconds, about 1/100 of the response time of the normal light source. Therefore, it can be used in many high frequency environments, such as automobile brake lights or status lights, which can shorten the braking time of the vehicle after the vehicle, thus improving the safety.
(5) high luminous efficiency: the light effect of incandescent lamp and halogen tungsten lamp is 12-24lm/w (lumen/watt), the light effect of fluorescent lamp is 50-70lm/w, the light effect of sodium lamp is 90-140lm/w, and most of the electricity consumption turns into heat loss. However, the light-effect of LED can reach 50-200 lm/w, and the light has a good monochromaticity and narrow spectrum, which can directly emit colored visible light without filtering.
(6) the size of LED components is small: it is more convenient for the layout and design of all kinds of equipment, and it can better realize the effect of "no light source" in night lighting.
(7) high concentration of LED light energy: concentrated in the small wavelength window, high purity.
(8) LED light intensity: brightness attenuation is much lower than traditional light source.
(9) LED low-voltage direct current can be driven: it has advantages of small load and weak interference, and low environmental requirements.
(10) better control of luminescent spectrum composition: it can be used well in museums as well as local or key lighting in galleries.
(11) it can control the size of the semiconductor luminescent layer and semiconductor materials: it can emit all kinds of colors, and the color degree is higher.
High color: no harm to eyes.
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